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This page contains only academic information for my students at the University of Ghana. Here, I will place some sample examination questions to some of the courses I teach at the Undergraduate level, to serve as a study guide for them as they prepare for their end of semester examinations. It will however be updated with time.

 DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

FDSC 302: THERMAL PROCESSING OF FOODS

1. a.  With the aid of a well-labelled diagram, explain the main features on a time-temperature profile for thermal process evaluation.

b.  Outline the main causes of spoilage in canned foods and briefly explain how they effect can spoilage after processing.

c.   What is the significance of the 12-D concept in canning technology?

 2.   a.   Differentiate between Death Rate Constant     and Temperature Coefficient as    indices of microbial thermal destruction during heat sterilization processes.

b.  Explain what is meant by commercial sterilization of canned foods.

3. a.  Briefly explain the mechanism of microwave heating of foods and outline any five (5) of its applications in food industry.

    b.  What differentiates between microwave heating and conventional heating of foods.

 4.     Explain the following terms as applied to canning technology;

i.                     Swells

ii.                   Springers

iii.                  Flippers

iv.                 Exhausting

v.                   Aseptic processing

 5.    a.    Define the term sterilization as used in food processing.

 b.  A suspension containing 3 x 105 spores of organism  A having a D-value of 1.5 min at 121.5 C and 8 x 106 spores of organism B having a D-value of 0.8 min at 121.5C is heated at a uniform constant temperature of 121.1C. Calculate the heating time needed for the suspension to attain a 10-3 probability of spoilage.

6.   a.   Explain what is meant by aseptic processing as used in canning technology.

      b.    Enumerate any five (5) factors that influence the rate of heat penetration during can sterilization.

 7.  With the aid of a well-labelled diagram, explain the main features on a time-temperature profile for thermal process evaluation.

8.  a.  What is the significance of the 12-D concept in canning technology.

     b. Outline the main causes of spoilage in canned foods and briefly explain how they effect can spoilage after processing. 

9. a.   What is exhausting in canning technology?

    b.      Outline any five reasons why blanching is necessary during industrial processing of fruits.

10. a.   Explain what is meant by commercial sterilization of canned foods.

     b.    Explain how can headspace would influence product deterioration and can corrosion during storage of canned foods.

 

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

(All right reserved)

 

 

B.Sc 2ND SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS 2003/2004

 

FDSC 302: THERMAL PROCESSING OF FOODS

 

 

TIME ALLOWED: 2 HOURS

 

ANSWER QUESTION ONE (1) AND ANY OTHER THREE (3) QUESTIONS.                           

 

 

1.         a.         With the aid of well-labelled diagrams, differentiate between Decimal Reduction Time and Temperature Coefficient as indices of thermal destruction of microorganisms during heat sterilization.

 

            b.         Explain the main features on a time-temperature profile for thermal process evaluation, with the aid of a well-labelled diagram.

 

2.         Describe vividly the organism(s), types, characteristics and post-processing behaviour of ‘toxiogenic spore formers’ in canning technology.

 

3.         Explain, with specific examples how thermal processing influences the chemical and physical characteristics of foods.

 

4.         Explain the following terms as applied to canning technology;

i.                     Commercial sterility

ii.                   Blanching

iii.                  Springers

iv.                 Heat sterilization

v.                   Aseptic processing

 

5.         Enumerate the factors that influence the rate of heat penetration during can sterilization and explain any five (5) of them.

 

 

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

(All right reserved)

 

 

B.Sc 2ND SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS 2004/2005

 

FDSC 302: THERMAL PROCESSING OF FOODS

 

TIME ALLOWED: 2 HOURS

 

ANSWER QUESTION ONE (1) AND ANY OTHER THREE (3) QUESTIONS.

           

1.         a.         Discuss the factors that influence the rate of heat penetration during canning of foods.                                                                                         (30)

 

            b.         Describe vividly how heat penetration determination is conducted in the fish canning industry.

                                                                                                                                    (10)

 

2.         Explain the following terms as applied to canning technology;

i.                     Flippers

ii.                   D-value

iii.                  Springers

iv.                 Exhausting

v.                   Z-value                                                                                     (20)

 

 

3.         a.         Differentiate between the terms ‘commercial sterility’ and “bacteriological sterility” as used in canning technology.

 

            b.         Explain the factors that influence the spoilage of canned foods.   (20)

 

 

4.         Describe vividly the organism(s), types, characteristics and post-processing behaviour of ‘toxiogenic spore formers’ in canning technology.               (20)

 

 

5.         Explain what is meant by ‘aseptic processing’ as used in canning technology and enumerate any five (5) advantages and five (5) disadvantages of the process.

                                                                                                                                    (20)

 

 

 

Department of Nutrition and Food Science

University of Ghana

 

FDSC 305 – Physical Principles in Food Processing

 

Sample Examination Questions

 

1.  a.    Distinguish between emulsification and homogenization as applied to the processing of liquid foods and use Stoke’s law to explain the factors that control the stability of emulsions.

 

     b.    Explain the reasons why extrusion cooking has gained popularity in the food process industry in recent times and cites five (5) food products that processed using this technology.

 

2.  a.    Outline five important properties of an ideal refrigerant and name any four (4) compounds that can be used as refrigerants in a mechanical refrigerator.

 

     b.    With the aid of a well-labelled diagram, explain the mode of operation of a mechanical refrigeration circuit.

 

3.  a.    Briefly discuss the factors that would influence the yield of pineapple juice from pineapple fruits during expression.

 

     b.    During preparation of bread dough, 500g of sugar are mixed with 200 kg of flour. When ten 100g samples are taken after 1, 5 and 10 mins and analyzed  for the percentage sugar, the following results were obtained;

 

Sample No.

Percentage after

1 min

5 min

10 min

1

0.21

0.85

0.72

2

0.32

0.80

0.69

3

0.46

0.62

0.71

4

0.17

0.78

0.70

5

0.89

0.75

0.68

6

1.00

0.39

0.71

7

0.98

0.84

0.70

8

0.23

0.96

0.72

9

0.10

0.58

0.70

10

0.14

0.47

0.70

 

Calculate the mixing index for each mixing time and draw conclusions regarding the efficiency of mixing, assuming with the assumption that for a perfect mixing, there is the probability that 99.7% of samples will fall within standard deviations of the mean composition  r = 0.01%.

 

4.  a.   Two important equations are associated with fluid dynamics. Show how they are derived and applied in food processing operations.

 

      b.   Using Bernoulli’s equation, explain how differences in pressure may arise in a milk processing line due to constriction in the pipes.

 

5.  a.    Discuss the advantages and limitations of the different arrangements of effects in a multiple effects evaporator.

 

     b.    As the Technical Consultant of a Food Advisory firm, explain the factors you would use to advice an entrepreneur on the best selection of an evaporator for use in food processing.  

 
 
 
UNIVERSITY OF GHANA
(All right reserved) 
 
B.Sc 1ST SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS 2003/2004 

FDSC 305: PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES IN FOOD PROCESSING

SECTION A

          (a)        Write short notes on the following; illustrate where necessary

i.          Systems, open and closed systems

ii.                   Boundaries and Surroundings

iii.                  Energy  balances                                                           

           (b)       Briefly describe the essential requirements before applying the   mass  balance equation to a given problem.                                         (10)

(c)        Distinguish between emulsification and homogenization of liquid foods. (5)

(d)        Several operations in food processing involve heat transfer. Identify any four (4) heat transfer operations, describe the operation, the heat transfer medium used and process conditions. (15)

                                                                                                                     

SECTION B

 2.         1000 kg of raw crude copra is to be processed into edible oil and feed-cake. The composition of the raw copra is crude fat = 32%, crude protein = 28 %, carbohydrate = 15.5 % fibre and ash = 15.7 % and moisture = 8.8 %. The stages involved in the processing are:

 Crushing and pressing. This reduced the oil content in the copra to 4 %

  1. Further extraction of the oil using hexane to produce the feed-cake with oil content 0.5% and
  2. Finally, drying of the feed-cake to moisture content of 4%

 (a)    Draw a flow diagram for the process

(b)   Set out a mass balance for the process, assuming that there is no loss of water during crushing and pressing.

3.         (a) Briefly explain the difference between total mass balance and component mass balance.

 (b) Draw a diagram and set a total mass and component balance equations only for a crystalliser where 100 kg of a concentrated sugar solution containing 85 % sucrose and 14 % water and 1 % impurities enters. Upon cooling, the sugar crystallises from solution.  A centrifuge then separates the crystals from a liquid fraction called the mother liquor. The crystal slurry fraction has, for 20% of its weight, a liquid with the same composition as the mother liquor. The mother liquor contains 60 % sucrose by weight.

 4.         Discuss any four types of heat exchange equipment used in food processing industry.

5.         (a)        Differentiate between streamline and turbulent flow in food processing.

            (b)        Comment on the following equations:

                     i.                     Dv/

                    ii.          dQ/d = k A dt/dx

6.         (a)        Use Stokes law to explain the factors that control the stability of   emulsions.

            (b)        Using the appropriate equation, describe the effect of filter cake, feed liquid and filtrate on the resistance to flow through a filter.

 

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

(All right reserved)

 

 

B.Sc 1ST SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS 2004/2005

 

FDSC 305: PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES IN FOOD PROCESSING

 

ANSWER QUESTION ONE (1), ONE QUESTION FROM SECTION B AND TWO FROM SECTION C. (i.e. a total of 4 questions)

 

TIME ALLOWED: 3 HOURS

 

ANSWER EACH SECTION IN A SEPARATE BOOKLET

 

SECTION A

 

1          a.         i.          Write shorts notes on the constant-rate period and the falling-rate

period.

 

ii.          Distinguish between closed systems and open systems.

 

iii.         Briefly discus the factors that influence the magnitude energy required in size reduction.

                                                                                                                       

b.          i.         Explain Fourier’s equation for heat conductance and discuss its significance in food processing equipment manufacture.

 

ii.          With specific examples describe the concept of fluids in food process engineering.

 

40 marks

 

SECTION B

 

2.         PROMAIZ Foods Ltd specializes in the production of packaged high-protein cereal legume convenience food for sale. In their production, dry cowpea is dehulled and mixed with soaked maize, milled, made into a dough and then allowed to ferment for 48 h. The wet product is then dried at 60 C for 18h before being packaged. In a typical process, the following parameters were obtained:

 

Weight of dry cowpea                                                  =          750 kg

 

Weight of dehulled cowpea                                           =            710 kg

 

Weight of dry maize                                                      =          1,500 kg

 

Weight of soaked maize                                                =          2,630 kg

 

Weight of blend of maize and cowpea                           =          3,050 kg

 

Weight of dough before fermentation                             =          3,980 kg

 

Weight of dried product                                                =          3,330 kg

 

 

i.                     Draw a labelled flow diagram of the process

ii.                   Set out a complete material balance for the process assuming that there was no loss of material during fermentation.

 

 

3          10 kg of freshly dried cassava chunks, with moisture content of 10% (w.b) and average particle size of 40 mm, is to be milled initially into grits, average particle size 5 mm, and then finally, into cassava flour, average particle size 0.5mm. Assume there was no loss in mass during the two processes.

 

(i)   What size-reduction machine would be appropriate for the process?

(ii)    Briefly describe the nature of forces involved in the milling process?

(iii)    If the crushing constant of the dried cassava is assumed to be 1.578, estimate;

                                                               i.      the energy that would be used up to produce the cassava grits

                                                             ii.      the energy that would be used up to produce the cassava flour

(Assume the Kick’s constant = 3.46 kwh/kg and Rittinger’s constant

= 10.56 kwh/kg)                                                                                                                      (20 Marks)

 

SECTION C

 

4.         Derive Bernoulli’s equation as applied in food processing and use it to explain how differences in pressure may arise in an oil processing pipe due to constriction.

                       

                                                                                                                        (20 Marks)

 

5.         (a)        Differentiate between freezing  and chilling as used in heat transfer and explain their significance in the food processing industry.

           

(b)        A cabinet incubator was designed by a Food Science student using stainless steel of 0.45 cm thickness. The dimensions of the incubator were; length 40 cm, width 15 cm and height 30 cm. The student placed the incubator in a water bath at 95C and if the contents of the incubator had a temperature of 35C after equilibrating, calculate the rate of heat transfer through the surface along the length assuming a thermal conductivity of 15 J m-1 s-1 C-1 for stainless steel at the temperature range of 35C to 95C.          

                                                                                                                        (20 Marks)

 

6.         a.         Explain how thermoplastic extruders work during food processing.

 

b.         With the aid of well labelled diagrams, explain the different arrangements of multiple effect evaporators in the food processing industry and outline the advantages and limitations of any one of them.

 

                                                                                                            (20 Marks)

 

University of Ghana

 

Dept of Nutrition and Food Science

 

FD SC 305 PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES IN FOOD PROCESSING

 

 

INTERIM ASSESSMENT  2004/2005 

 

ATTEMPT ALL QUESTIONS                                 TIME ALLOWED: 1.5 hours

 

A.        i.          Complete the statement “ Material balance calculations (MBCs) are

employed in tracing the……….. and outflow of material in a process’

 

ii.                   Complete the statement “Material balances are based on the law of ……………………………..”.

iii.                  Three forces involved in size reduction are……………………………………….

 

iv.                 Complete the sentence: “In material balance, if the accumulation = 0, the process is in a ……….. state”.

 

v.                   Distinguish between the terms mass fraction of A and total mass of mixture containing A.

 

vi.                 What is a unit operation?

 

vii.                How much weight reduction would result when a material is dried from 80 % moisture to 50 % moisture?

 

viii.              Distinguish between the terms specific surface and particle –size distribution

 

ix.                 Milk is an emulsion of fat and water. Describe the disperse phase and continuous phases in this emulsion and briefly explain what factors affect the stability of milk.

 

B.         i.          List five characteristics of an ideal refrigerant and give any four examples

of compounds that can be used as refrigerant in a mechanical refrigerator.

 

ii.                     What are heat exchanges? Explain with the aid of diagrams four types of heat exchangers used in the food processing industry stating at least two products processed from each type.

 

iii.         Outline the factors that influence the nature of extruded food products.

 

DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

 

FDSC 306: PLANTS PRODUCTS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

 

TIME ALLOWED:

SECTION A: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

 

1.         Explain the following terms as applied to the processing and the utilization of soy products:

 

a.                   Protein isolates

b.         Protein concentrates

c.         Textured proteins                                                                      (6 marks)

 

2.         a.         State the scientific names of the following legumes and spices:

i.                     Fenugreek                                vi.         Cowpea

ii.                   Parsley                                     vii.        Nutmeg

iii.                  Kidney beans                           viii.       Bambara beans

iv.         Cinnamon

v.                   Soybeans                                                                     (8 Marks)

 

3.         Outline any four methods by which legumes can be processed. (2 marks)

 

4.         Name any four (4) indigenous and oriental foods prepared from legumes.                                                                                                                                               (2 marks)

 

5.         Enumerate the two oligosaccharides responsible for gas formation in the digestive system of humans after consumption of legumes.                                   (2 marks)

 

 

ANSWER ONE (1) QUESTION FROM THIS SECTION                       

 

1.         a.         With the aid of flow diagrams, explain the differences in processing technique between the single and multi-stage extraction technologies used in the extraction of palm kernel oil.                                                                (15 marks)

 

            b.         Explain briefly how the differences in the two method influences the final product quality.                                                                                    (5 marks)

 

2.         a.         Name any five (5) anti-nutritional factor in legumes and explain how their presence impede the absorption of some specific nutrients in humannutrition.                                                                                                                 (10 Marks)

 

b.         Explain how the addition of common salt (Sodium chloride) to legume seeds interferes with their rate of softening during cooking.                       (10 Marks)

 

 

 FDSC 306: PLANTS PRODUCTS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

 

1.         Distinguish between protein isolates and protein concentrates  (2 marks)

 2.         Name any four products of spices and give any three active spices and/or herbs used for their preparation. (4 marks)

 3.         Outline the three main factors that affect the digestibility of legumes? (3 marks)

 4.         Name any four (4) oriental foods prepared from legumes.  (2 marks)

 5.         State the two extraction techniques used during the traditional processing of oilseeds. (2 marks)

6.         Name the two oligosaccharides responsible for gas formation in the digestive system of humans after consumption of legumes.  (2 marks)

 

ANSWER AT LEAST ONE (1) QUESTION FROM THIS SECTION                

 1.         a.         Name any five (5) anti-nutritional factor in legumes and explain how their presence impede the absorption of nutrients in human nutrition.  (10 Marks)

b.                  With the aid of a flow diagram, explain how the three stage extraction process is used for the production of palm kernel oil.    (10 Marks)

2.         a.         Name the scientific names of the following legumes and spices:

i.                     Bambara beans                        vi.         Cloves

ii.                   Lima beans                              vii.         Nutmeg

iii.                  Kidney beans                          viii.        Rosemary

iv.                 Groundnut                               ix.          Cinnamon

v.                Soybeans                                   x .       Parsley                                          

 

b.         Explain how the addition of common salt (Sodium chloride) to legume seeds interferes with their rate of softening during cooking.    (10 Marks)

 

3.         a.  With the aid of a flow diagram, explain the processing method used for the production of Dawadawa from the African locust bean.   (15 Marks)

             b. Explain briefly how the process can be improved.  (5 Marks)

 

DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

 

FDSC 306: PLANTS PRODUCTS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

 

TIME ALLOWED:

SECTION A: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

 

 

1.         a.         State the scientific names of the following legumes and spices:

i.                     Cowpea                                   vi.         Cloves

ii.                   Lentils                                      vii.        Nutmeg

iii.                  Kidney beans                          viii.        Rosemary

iv.                 Pigeon peas                             ix.         Bambara groundnut

v.                   Sage                                          x.        Parsley             (5 Marks)

 

 

2.         Name any five (5) anti-nutritional factor in legumes and briefly explain how their presence impede the absorption of nutrients in human nutrition.                   (5 Marks)

 

3.         Explain the following terms as applied to the processing and the utilization of soy products:

 

a.                   Meat analogs

b.         Protein concentrates

c.         Lecithinated soy flour                                                                (6 marks)

 

4.         Name any four products of spices and give any three active spices and/or herbs used for the preparation of each of named products.                                   (4 marks)

 

 

ANSWER ONE (1) QUESTION FROM THIS SECTION                       

 

1.         With the aid of a flow diagram, describe the isoelectric precipitation process used for the production of protein isolates from soybeans.                         (20 marks)

 

 

2.         a.  With the aid of a flow diagram, explain the processing method used for the processing of Dawadawa from the African locust bean.                   (14 Marks)

 

b. Briefly explain how the organoleptic qualities of the product can be improved.                                                                                                                        (6 Marks)

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

 

FDSC 308: ANIMAL PRODUCTS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

 

TIME ALLOWED:

SECTION A: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

 

1.         Distinguish between meat analog and meat extenders.  (2 marks)

 

2.         Explain what meant by the term rigor mortis in food processing.   (2 marks)

 

3.         What are the constituents of meat protein? .  (2 marks)

 

4.         Explain briefly why it is necessary to rest an animal before slaughtering?

(4 marks)

 

5.         Enumerate any four methods of meat processing or preservation. .  (2 marks)

 

6.         What factors influence the shelf life of meat under refrigeration? .  (2 marks)

 

7.         Name any four post-mortem microorganisms associated with meat spoilage.

(2 marks)

 

8.         What is the significance of smoking as a meat preservation technique? . 

(4 marks)

 

 

 

ANSWER AT LEAST (1) QUESTION FROM THIS SECTION             

 

1.         a.         Outline the factors that can be employed to improve meat quality.

(8 marks)

 

b.         Explain the different methods of meat curing and indicate in each case how their preservative effect is achieved. .  (12 marks)

 

2.         Describe the physical and biochemical changes that occur during the conversion of muscle to meat after the death of an animal.  (20 marks)

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

 

FDSC 308: ANIMAL PRODUCTS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

 

TIME ALLOWED:

 

SECTION A: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

 

1.         Explain what meant by the term ‘rigor mortis’ in food processing.                       (3)

 

2.         Explain why it is necessary to rest an animal before slaughtering?                        (3)

 

3          Briefly explain how the water holding capacity can influence the quality of meat.                                                                                                                         (3)

 

4.         Name any two microorganisms associated with post-mortem meat spoilage and name the diseases they cause.                                                                           (2)

 

5.         What is the effect of aerobic spoilage on meat quality?                           (2)

 

6.         Enumerate any four methods of meat processing or preservation.                       (2)

 

 

 

ANSWER ONE (1) QUESTION FROM THIS SECTION                       

 

1.         a.         Describe the physical and biochemical changes that occur during the conversion of muscle to meat after the death of an animal.                    (15 marks)

 

b.         Outline the factors that can be employed to improve meat quality.                                                                                                                                              (5 marks)

 

 

2.         a.         Briefly explain the significance of smoking as a meat preservation

technique.                                                                                 (8 marks)

 

b.                  Explain the different methods of meat curing and indicate in each case how their preservative effect is achieved.                                   (12 marks)

 

 

  

DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

 

FDSC 308: ANIMAL PRODUCTS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

 

1.         Distinguish between meat analog and meat extenders.  (2 marks)

2.         Explain what meant by the term rigor mortis in food processing.  

3.         What are the constituents of meat protein? .  (2 marks)

4.         Explain briefly why it is necessary to rest an animal before      slaughtering? 

5.         Enumerate any four methods of meat processing or preservation. .  (2 marks)

6.         What factors influence the shelf life of meat under refrigeration? .  (2 marks)

7.         Name any four post-mortem microorganisms associated with meat spoilage. (2 marks)

8.         What is the significance of smoking as a meat preservation technique? 

 

ATTEMPT THESE MAJOR QUESTIONS

1.         a.         Outline the factors that can be employed to improve meat quality. (8 marks)

b.         Explain the different methods of meat curing and indicate in each case how their preservative effect is achieved. .  (12 marks)

2.         Describe the physical and biochemical changes that occur during the conversion of muscle to meat after the death of an animal.  (20 marks)

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

 

FDSC 308: ANIMAL PRODUCTS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

 

TIME ALLOWED:  

 

SECTION A: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

 

1.         Explain what meant by the term ‘rigor mortis’ in meat technology.   (4 marks)

 

2.         Explain briefly why it is necessary to rest an animal before slaughtering?

(4 marks)

 

3.         With specific examples, differentiate between contractile proteins and regulatory proteins in muscles.                                                                              (4 marks)

 

4.         Enumerate the factors that may influence the organoleptic qualities of poultry meat?                                                                                                        (4 marks)

 

5.         Name any four post-mortem microorganisms associated with meat infection and identify the diseases they cause.                                                             (4 marks)

 

 

 

ANSWER AT LEAST (1) QUESTION FROM THIS SECTION             

 

1.         Discuss the factors that can be used to control the deteriorative changes in meat during post-mortem handling and storage.                                                (20 marks)

 

2.         Explain the important properties of meat that dictates its usefulness to the butcher, its appeal to the consumer and its adaptability for processing.        (20 marks)

 

 

 

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

(All right reserved)

 

 

B.Sc 1ST INTERIM ASSESSMENT 2003/2004

 

FDSC 411: SUGAR AND BEVERAGE TECHNOLOGY

 

ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

 

TIME ALLOWED: 1 HOURS

 

1.         Describe the chemical and microbiological changes that occur during the curing process of the cocoa pulp, leading to the destruction of the pulp.

 

 

2.         Explain the various processes used for the manufacture of black and green tea and indicate what accounts for the differences in their technology.

 

 

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

(All right reserved)

 

 

B.Sc 1ST SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS 2004/2005

 

FDSC 411: SUGAR AND BEVERAGE TECHNOLOGY

 

ANSWER QUESTION ONE (1) AND ANY OTHER THREE.

i.e. a total of 4 questions

 

TIME ALLOWED: 2 HOURS

 

1.         i.         Enumerate and explain the various techniques for curing cocoa beans.

 

ii.          Describe the chemistry of polyphenols in cocoa and explain how they influence the quality of cocoa products.

(30 marks)

 

 

2.         Describe the chemical and biochemical changes that occur in the cotyledon of cocoa seeds during the aerobic condensation phase of the curing process.  

(20 marks)

 

 

3.         With the aid of flow charts, outline and explain the processing procedures for the manufacture of dark and milk chocolates from dried cocoa beans.                                                                                                                                          (20 marks)

 

 

4.         Write short notes on the following as applied to cocoa processing and sugar refining;

 

i.                     Affination

ii.                   Sugar bloom

iii.                  Conching

iv.                 Roasting

v.                   Defecation                                                                                (20 marks)

 

 

5.         Explain vividly the various processing procedures for the manufacture of raw cane sugar.

(20 marks)  

 

 

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

(All right reserved)

 

 

B.Sc 1ST SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS 2003/2004

 

FDSC 413: FOOD LAWS AND REGULATIONS

 

ANSWER QUESTION ONE (1) AND ANY OTHER QUESTION.

i.e. a total of 2 questions

 

TIME ALLOWED: 1 HOURS

 

1.         a.         Distinguish between food laws and food control in the Ghanaian setting.

 

b.                  What are the aims of the Codex Alimentarius Commission?

 

c.                   Identify any five (5) codex committees responsible for the development of draft standard, guidelines and recommendations in international food trade.

 

d.                  Give the full meaning of the following abbreviations in food laws and regulations:

 

i.                     GATT

ii.                   SPS

iii.                  TBT

iv.                 WIPO

v.                   PSI                                                                              (60 marks)

 

 

2.         a.         Explain what is meant by the term ‘food’, as described under the Ghana Food and Drugs Law.               (5 marks)

 

b.                  Outline the conditions for which a food item shall be deemed adulterated under the Ghana Food and Drugs Law 1992.  (15 marks)

 

 

3.         How is the World Trade Organization involved in food laws and regulations?  (20 marks)

 

 

UNIVERSITY OF GHANA

(All right reserved)

 

 

B.Sc 1ST SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS 2004/2005

 

FDSC 413: FOOD LAWS AND REGULATIONS

 

ANSWER QUESTION ONE (1) AND ANY OTHER QUESTION.

i.e. a total of 2 questions

 

TIME ALLOWED: 1 HOURS

 

1.         a.         Explain what is meant by the term ‘food’, as described under the Ghana

Food and Drugs Law.              

 

b.                  Outline the conditions for which a food item shall be deemed adulterated

under the Ghana Food and Drugs Law 1992.

 

c.         Distinguish between food laws and food control in the Ghanaian setting.

 

d.            Outline and explain any five important concepts in international food laws  

            and regulations.

 

e.             Identify any five (5) codex commodity committees responsible for the

development of draft standard, guidelines and recommendations of various commodities in international food trade.

 

f.              Give the full meaning of the following abbreviations used in food laws   

and regulations:

 

a.       TRIPS

b.      ICITO

c.       TBT

d.      WIPO

e.       GATT                                                                                (60 marks)

 

 

2.         Explain how the World Trade Organization and the Codex Alimentarius             Commission co-ordinate the activities of international food trade?                                                                                                                                                      (20 marks)

 

 

3.         Describe how the principal aims of the Codex Alimentarius Commission are executed in international food trade.                                                             (20 marks)

 

                                                                                        

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